Reema Zeineldin, Ph.D.
of drugs treats local and disseminated disease along with spheroids as the OVCA metastasis is largely confined to the
peritoneum, though the IP route is associated with high toxicity. To enhance chemotherapy, it may be combined with
biological therapies (also referred to as molecular therapies or targeted therapies) using inhibitors of molecular
pathways contributing to carcinogenesis; Many patients suffer from recurrence of OVCA and they become resistant to
therapy and incurable. MCAs are resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, which may contribute to relapse in
treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that the recently identified ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) are relatively
resistant to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and they have the ability to generate and be propagated in
vitro as MCAs. All of these factors contribute to therapeutic resistance and recurrence of OVCAs.
Gynecologic Oncology 120 (2011) 393–403.